The club was founded as Al-Shorta Doha and in 2009 was renamed to Lekhwiya, Upon the club’s reformation, it was entered into the Qatari 2nd Division. It came fourth in the league on its first year before winning the next season in 2010.
In 2017, the club’s name was changed to Duhail.
In the club’s first season in the Qatar Stars League, Duhail finished at the top of the standings to win the 2010–11 Qatar Stars League. It was the first league title in the club’s history. They also managed to reach the final of the 2010 Sheikh Jassem Cup, before losing in the final to Al-Arabi.
Their first official debut in a continental competition came on March 7, 2012 in the 2012 AFC Champions League. They won their first match against Al-Ahli of Saudi Arabia.
In the 2011–12 Qatar Stars League season, Duhail retained the league title with two games left to be played.